2009 – Brazilian Government Space Budget – Snapshot
The National Congress of Brazil’s 2010 Federal Budget authorizes ## million Brazilian reals (US$## million) for activities associated with the National Program of Space Activities, a small increase from the previous year. This authorization includes ## million reals (US$## million) for the Brazilian space agency, Agência Espacial Brasileira (AEB), and ## million reals (US$## million) for the Alcântara Space Centre.
2009 – Israeli Government Space Budget – Snapshot
Civil space expenditures in Israel are modest, with an estimated expenditure of ## million New Israeli Shekels (US$## million) in 2009. Israel devotes most of its space spending to military space programs, with an annual budget of approximately ## million New Israeli Shekels (US$## million).
2009 – PISA Test Snapshot
An examination of PISA test scores among 14 countries active in space offers a more focused view of relative math and science literacy, which has implications for the numbers of STEM graduates each country produces and in turn the supply of STEM-skilled workers available for space-related professions. Exhibit 4bb shows national PISA test scores from 2009 for major space countries in mathematics and science.
2009 – Top-level Trends – Snapshot
As nations around the world increase investment in both space activity and space human capital infrastructure, traditional models of space education and workforce development are increasingly being supplemented by newer approaches. These approaches emphasize the potential for international space education cooperation and focus on engaging student interest in space at an early age.
2008 – Other Countries, Launch, Payload
The Brazilian Space Agency has sporadically continued development of its proposed Veículo Lançador de Satélites (VLS) booster, designed to launch from the country’s Alcântara spaceport near the equator. Brazil hopes to perform further tests featuring a mockup rocket in 2010. Possibly as early as 2009, Brazil is expected to begin launching Ukrainian-built rockets under a joint venture between the two countries formalized in 2007.[
2008 – Space Employment – Snapshot
The economic impacts and human capital effects of global space activity are mutually reinforcing. Worldwide space activity is a driver of industry and commerce, both in economic sectors with a primary space linkage and in secondary and tertiary supporting industries. As space-related economic activity stimulates economic growth, it employs individuals, shapes educational needs, and informs public policy priorities.
2008 – Israeli Government Space Budget – Snapshot
Israel’s 2008 space budget was ## million Israeli new shekels (US$## million), roughly ##% of the country’s national budget of ## billion Israeli new shekels (US$## billion). Most of Israel’s space spending has focused on military applications such as the Ofeq spy satellites and the Shavit-1 booster.
2008 – Commercial Space and Entrepreneurial Advancement
Commercial space programs, like their government counterparts, continue to evolve around the world. As detailed in Space Products and Services, the more established programs in satellite communications and remote sensing are being joined by entrepreneurial space activities that provide excitement an… This article is for subscribers. Please sign up for a subscription or login below.…
2007 – European Military Space Budget
Military space spending among European countries in 2006 totaled $## billion (€## million), according to the European Space Policy Institute, a research institute founded and supported by European aerospace industry partners. For 2004, Euroconsult estimates non-U.S. space spending at $## billion. Countries included in this estimate are the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Israel. Data on international military space spending is generally held closely and difficult to find in public sources. Until better data becomes available, we will continue to use this 2004 figure as an estimate in our aggregated number.
2005 – Government Space Budgets Overview
Non-U.S. military estimates, which are for 2004, include the following countries: United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Israel. China’s budget includes both military and civil expenditures. Note that the estimate of China’s space budget is controversial. At a NASA budget hearing in April 2006, much of the discussion was about the possible size of China’s space program and its ability to complete its plans to land astronauts on the Moon in 2017.