The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is at the core of the space industry—from the mathematicians and astronomers who analyze space to the engineers who design and build the launch vehicles that get us there. This workforce is enabled . . .
Growth in the government investment sector of the space economy outpaced commercial sectors as the U.S. and non-U.S. government shares of the global space economy between 2017 and 2018. . .
Around the globe, many smaller nations—whether in terms of economy or population size—are investing in space projects or programs. The exhibit below shows the most recent available annual budget for civil space activities in a number of selected space states.
Israel often works with other countries to cooperate in its space endeavors, whether civil, national security (or dual-use), or commercial. Its civil space organization, the Israel Space Agency (ISA), overseen by the Ministry of Science, Technology & Space, has had a reference annual budget of ## million shekels (US$## million) since 2012—prior to that it received a nominal fee for basic operations, and any needs for individual projects beyond a few million shekels had to be requested from the Ministry of Finance.
Government space programs accounted for approximately $## billion in spending during 2013, representing ##% of the global space economy. Government investment in space decreased by ##% in 2013, contributing to a cumulative average annual growth rate of ##% between 2009 and 2013. The top-line figures, however, do not fully depict how some countries have significantly increased space spending while others have made cuts, as shown in Exhibit 2n. Because not all governments operate under the same fiscal cycle, international space spending numbers were derived from the most recent budgetary information available for each country. The figures reported in the following country profiles are presented in both the local currency and U.S. dollars as of June 30 of the appropriate year.
Many remote sensing satellites have dual military and civil or commercial purposes. India launched its indigenously developed radar imaging satellite, RISAT-1, in April 2012. The satellite will join RISAT-2 and will provide India with the ability to image features on the ground even if covered by clouds or foliage due to its use of a C-band microwave synthetic aperture radar. RISAT-2, a radar-based reconnaissance satellite, was purchased from Israel and deployed before RISAT-1 to help track and prevent terrorist activity, such as the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.
Military-specific observation satellites can be used for reconnaissance or other intelligence-gathering purposes. The capabilities of remote sensing satellites can sometimes obscure whether or not they are being used for civilian or military applications.
Interested in space launch vehicle activities from countries normally not associated with space? Please select the associated link to read about them.