We have characterized space products and services as directly enabled by space infrastructure and intended to be in the space environment or directly interacting with the space environment.
The year 2005 saw growth in subscribers and offerings for mobile satellite services, launches of probes to explore Mars and Venus, a probe landing on Saturn’s moon Titan, and growth in commercial space transportation services.
The largest in-space platform ever constructed is the International Space Station (ISS). “Led by the United States, the ISS draws upon the scientific and technological resources of 16 nations: Canada, Japan, Russia, 11 nations of the European Space Agency [Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom], and Brazil,” according to NASA.
Japan is developing the Quasi-Zenith system, a regional augmentation of the GPS signal, with a 2008 planned launch.
Direct-to-home television services (referred to as DBS or DTH services) represent the largest portion of satellite services revenue. SIA estimates 2005 DBS/DARS industry revenue of $## billion, which yields a DBS estimate of $## billion net of the $## million in 2005 revenues reported by the three DARS providers (Exhibit 4l).[SIA estimates DBS subscribership at ## million in 2005. In-Stat, in its 2006 report, Worldwide Satellite Pay-TV Market, puts 2005 DTH television revenue at $## billion. Additionally…
Personal navigation systems are a quickly growing application of GPS for the consumer market. In-vehicle navigation systems can be purchased as an integral component of the car’s systems or an autonomous dashboard navigation unit.
Civil space programs have major science directorates that guide programmatic decisions. Divisions for Solar System Exploration, Structure & Evolution of the Universe, and Astronomical Search for Origins are all found in NASA’s $## billion 2005 space science budget.
More than ## missions carrying scientific instruments, in the form of probes and rovers, have been launched into the solar system to study planets, comets, asteroids, and other phenomena. These instruments return valuable scientific data on the history and nature of the solar system. Recently, NASA launched the New Horizons probe in January 2006 to study Pluto.
As the space infrastructure continues to grow, it is possible to expand the sphere of economically useful resources into space and neighboring planetary bodies. NASA, ESA, and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are among the space agencies that have conducted studies or workshops to address the feasibility of using extra-terrestrial resources, or In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).
The dominant space technology that supports energy and Earth resources is remote sensing. Remote sensing images are not limited to the wavelengths of light that can be seen by the human eye. Earth sensing satellites record primarily microwave, infrared, and visible light wavelengths.