The global space economy reached a new high of nearly $447 billion in 2020, an increase of 4.4% from a revised 2019 figure of $428 billion. The 2020 figure is 50% greater than a decade ago, and 176% greater than . . .
Growth in the government investment sector of the space economy outpaced commercial sectors as the U.S. and non-U.S. government shares of the global space economy between 2017 and 2018. . .
DTH television’s estimated revenue comprised ##% of the commercial space products and services sector, growing from $## billion in 2012 to $## billion in 2013. North American DTH providers DIRECTV and DISH Network continue to be the largest contributors, with combined estimated revenues of $## billion in 2013. The companies reached a combined total of ## million subscribers as of September 2013. DTH providers in other regions generated the remaining revenue of $## billion.
In calendar year 2012, the government of Mexico allocated a budget of ## million pesos (US$# million) to the Agencia Espacial Mexicana (AEM). The agency was established by law in 2010 and commenced operations in late 2011, so 2012 was the first full year of activity. AEM is a young and growing agency, and its budget is expected to rise to ## million pesos (US$# million) in calendar year 2013.
Around the globe, many smaller nations—whether in terms of economy or population size—are investing in space projects or programs. Exhibit 2cc shows the most recent available yearly budget for civil space activities in a number of selected emerging space states. Each of these countries tends to feature a different focus in its space investment portfolio, so care must be taken in making generalizations.
The number of FSS satellites has grown tremendously over the past five years in response to increased demand. Deregulation of international markets has sparked the rise of new companies providing content to customers via satellite. Harmonization of digital transmission standards has helped manufacturers, allowing for economies of scale and more cost-effective distribution.
Satellite communications have allowed governments in developing nations to establish e-governance portals and services without investing in terrestrial infrastructure. In Mexico, a distance learning course was beamed via satellite and the Internet to more than 1,800 teachers. Several governments, like the Gujarat State Wide Area Network (GSWAN) in India, have established VSAT networks to communicate between offices and bring governmental services to remote provinces.
The Open Initiative on the Use of Space Technologies to Support the World Heritage Convention is a program sponsored by ESA and the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Open Initiative focuses on the use of satellite imagery to identify and protect U.N.-designated world heritage sites and alert local authorities to changes that could pose a threat to those sites.