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Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Satellites


2011 – Galileo – Snapshot

The European Union (EU) is developing a PNT system called Galileo. The Galileo constellation will consist of 27 operational satellites and three in-orbit spares. In October 2011, the first two…

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2011 – BeiDou – Snapshot

Since 2000, China has also been building its own national PNT system, known as Beidou (the Mandarin name for the constellation otherwise known as the Big Dipper). China launched three…

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2011 – GLONASS – Snapshot

A launch in October 2011 raised the number of operational satellites in Russia’s GLONASS system to 24, enabling full global coverage for the first time since the 1990s. GLONASS was…

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2011 – GPS – Snapshot

Although many generically use the term “GPS” to refer to the overall concept of satellite-based navigation, this acronym only refers to one specific network. The U.S. Navigation Signal Timing and…

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Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure – TSR 2011

Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure - TSR 2011 examines global human spaceflight operations to include both the Chinese and US space stations, launch vehicles from all spacefaring nations, communications satellite constellations, PNT…

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Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure – TSR 2010

Space Infrastructure - TSR 2010 examines global human spaceflight operations to include both the Chinese and US space stations, launch vehicles from all spacefaring nations, communications satellite constellations, PNT satellites,…

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2009 – QZSS – Snapshot

The complete constellation is planned to be in place by 2011, though no launches had been conducted by the end of 2009. Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) will consist of…

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