2013


2013 – Government Space Budgets Overview

Government space programs accounted for approximately $## billion in spending during 2013, representing ##% of the global space economy. Government investment in space decreased by ##% in 2013, contributing to a cumulative average annual growth rate of ##% between 2009 and 2013. The top-line figures, however, do not fully depict how some countries have significantly increased space spending while others have made cuts, as shown in Exhibit 2n. Because not all governments operate under the same fiscal cycle, international space spending numbers were derived from the most recent budgetary information available for each country. The figures reported in the following country profiles are presented in both the local currency and U.S. dollars as of June 30 of the appropriate year.

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2013 – Space Products and Services Overview

Space products and services developed over the course of decades have altered the way people relate to both their planet and each other. Constellations of satellites orbiting the Earth provide a steady stream of information. Detailed forecasts provided by weather satellites as well as environmental monitoring and resource tracking by Earth observation satellites serve to improve the way humanity understands its surroundings.

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2013 – Probes

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft was launched in November 2013. MAVEN is intended to examine Mars’ upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and will also serve as a data relay in Martian orbit. This will facilitate communication between Earth and NASA’s assets currently on the surface and in orbit around Mars. MAVEN is expected to reach Mars in September 2014.

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2013 – Landers/Rovers

In addition to astrophysics missions, several planetary exploration missions proceeded throughout 2013. These missions all focused on investigating other orbital bodies in the Solar System, whether through orbiting satellites or robotic landers.

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2013 – Orbital Astrophysics Systems

Many astrophysics missions use telescopes aboard spacecraft to circumvent the atmospheric interference inherent to all Earth-bound facilities. Free of these constraints, space-based telescopes can scan the universe using sensors sensitive various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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2013 – U.S. Missile Detection

Satellites are essential tools for detecting hostile missiles being fired at allied forces. Systems such as the USAF Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS)-High program are designed to monitor and give maximum warning of ballistic missile launches originating anywhere on the planet. The system consists of two HEO satellites, three Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) spacecraft in LEO, as well as two GEO satellites, the most recent one being launched in March 2013.

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2013 – Military Communications

Dedicated and secure communications links are vital to defense agencies around the world. Increasing demand for capacity—particularly secure connectivity using non-commercial frequency bands—has driven the deployment of dedicated military communications satellites. The U.S. military buys a significant portion of its capacity from commercial operators such as Intelsat and SES. However, the United States also relies on military-specific systems such as the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) program, supplying dedicated communications to U.S. and allied military forces around the globe.

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2013 – Military Reconnaissance

Military-specific observation satellites can be used for reconnaissance or other intelligence-gathering purposes. The capabilities of remote sensing satellites can sometimes obscure whether or not they are being used for civilian or military applications.

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2013 – Meteorology

Weather satellites are a major segment of remote sensing satellites. Most weather satellites are in GEO or polar LEO orbits and have traditionally been operated by national governments for near-term weather forecasting. However, austere government budgets have caused weather-focused agencies to struggle to sustain existing programs under reduced funding. Maintaining existing programs with old, albeit reliable, data acquisition capabilities potentially inhibits the development and introduction of new, higher quality instrumentation that could increase accuracy.

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