On a global level, government investment in space increased #% to $## billion. Because not all governments operate under the same fiscal cycle, space spending numbers were derived from the most recent budgetary information available for each country. As in previous years, the growth was not uniform, with some countries reducing the funding available for space activity, as shown below. The figures reported in the following country profiles are presented in both the local currency and U.S. dollars as of June 30 of the appropriate year.
Government space programs accounted for approximately $## billion in spending during 2013, representing ##% of the global space economy. Government investment in space decreased by ##% in 2013, contributing to a cumulative average annual growth rate of ##% between 2009 and 2013. The top-line figures, however, do not fully depict how some countries have significantly increased space spending while others have made cuts, as shown in Exhibit 2n. Because not all governments operate under the same fiscal cycle, international space spending numbers were derived from the most recent budgetary information available for each country. The figures reported in the following country profiles are presented in both the local currency and U.S. dollars as of June 30 of the appropriate year.
Dedicated and secure communications links are vital to defense agencies around the world. Increasing demand for capacity—particularly secure connectivity using non-commercial frequency bands—has driven the deployment of dedicated military communications satellites. The U.S. military buys a significant portion of its capacity from commercial operators such as Intelsat and SES. However, the United States also relies on military-specific systems such as the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) program, supplying dedicated communications to U.S. and allied military forces around the globe.
In Israel, an increase in the civil space budget that was approved in 2012 was released by the Ministry of Finance for spending by the Israel Space Agency (ISA). This 2013 budget totaled ## million New Israeli Shekels (NIS) (US$## million). This represents a ##% increase over the estimated 2012 ISA budget of ## million NIS (US$## million).
The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Italy’s space agency, planned spending of €## million (US$## million) in 2013, excluding contributions made to ESA. This represents a ##% decrease from ASI-only planned spending of €## million (US$## million) in 2012. Italy’s contribution to ESA totaled €## million (US$## million) in 2013, an increase of ##% from 2012. Combined, the ASI budget and Italy’s ESA contribution totaled €## million (US$## million), representing approximately ##% of Italy’s planned 2013 national government budget of €## billion (US$## billion).
The number of STEM first-degree (bachelor’s equivalent) graduates in many space-relevant countries has increased in recent years. The disciplines included here are physical, biological, and computer science; engineering; and mathematics.
Science and engineering courses offered at the secondary school level are important for preparing students to pursue STEM degrees. Not only may students with more exposure be more likely to pursue a STEM degree upon reaching university, but research suggests that they are more likely to actually complete that degree.
The TIMSS study also assesses mathematics and science knowledge and skills. Unlike PISA, which focuses on broader mathematical and scientific literacy of students nearing the end of compulsory education, TIMSS is designed to align broadly with the mathematics and science curricula in participating countries at the fourth and eighth grade (approximately 9- and 13-year-old) levels.
Trends in international primary and secondary STEM education can be compared across countries using two widely respected international exams. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) every three years, focuses on the capabilities of 15-year-old students in mathematics and science literacy.