“Space education, research, and workforce development in the public and private sectors are core components of the U.S. national interest, with the potential to drive exploration and scientific discovery, to find new solutions for pressing challenges, including climate change, to strengthen American national security, and to provide good-paying jobs for Americans,” the roadmap document states.
Gallagher said the military must accelerate its efforts in space and cyberspace to keep pace with Russia and China, improving Pentagon cybersecurity and redesigning Space Force satellites to harden constellations against attack.
Civil space activities in Japan are coordinated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), which is funded primarily through the Ministry for Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT).
The majority of the French space budget goes to the French space agency, the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES). About 36% of CNES spending, went toward ESA projects. An additional 31%, of CNES spending went to the national space program. The remaining funds, were allocated for maintaining national resources and the Future Investment Program (PIA).
This developing space strategy is reflected in growing military space spending by the United States, with the Pentagon more than doubling space budgets from $19.7 billion in 2005 to an estimated $41.4 billion in 2022.
Eight nations have launched lunar missions, but only three have landed on the Moon. In 2022, four missions were partially or fully successful, a tempo last seen in 1969 — the year the first humans stepped foot on the lunar surface.
The United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) is an executive agency of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for the United Kingdom’s civil space program.
The South Korean government continued development of a Korean-made launch vehicle and improvement in the country’s ability to utilize information gathered by satellites.
Space exploration is a significant income source for the national budget.
Indian space activities are coordinated through the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).