2006


Science and Engineering Degrees, in Thousands, 2000-2016

“Space education, research, and workforce development in the public and private sectors are core components of the U.S. national interest, with the potential to drive exploration and scientific discovery, to find new solutions for pressing challenges, including climate change, to strengthen American national security, and to provide good-paying jobs for Americans,” the roadmap document states.

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U.S. Military Space Spending 2005-2022

Gallagher said the military must accelerate its efforts in space and cyberspace to keep pace with Russia and China, improving Pentagon cybersecurity and redesigning Space Force satellites to harden constellations against attack.

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Japanese Space Budget, 2005-2021

Civil space activities in Japan are coordinated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), which is funded primarily through the Ministry for Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT).

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France Space Budget, 2005-2021

The majority of the French space budget goes to the French space agency, the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES). About 36% of CNES spending, went toward ESA projects. An additional 31%, of CNES spending went to the national space program. The remaining funds, were allocated for maintaining national resources and the Future Investment Program (PIA).

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Lunar Missions by Result, 1959-2022

Eight nations have launched lunar missions, but only three have landed on the Moon. In 2022, four missions were partially or fully successful, a tempo last seen in 1969 — the year the first humans stepped foot on the lunar surface.

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