Infrastructure

Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Satellites


2017 – PNT Ground Networks

During 2017, the United States Air Force still conducted operations with decades-old ground equipment. The ground network consisted of 11 command and control antennas and a total of 16 monitoring…

Read More


2017 – GPS

The U.S. Air Force (USAF) managed 31 operational GPS satellites during 2017, seven more than the minimum 24 GPS satellites required for effective operations. Even though the U.S. number of…

Read More


2017 – GLONASS

Russia’s share of operational PNT satellites increased from 21% in 2016 to 26% in 2017. Operating the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), the nation was tied with China in overall…

Read More


2017 – QZSS

After seven years of single-satellite operations for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), Japan’s PNT constellation, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched three more QZSS satellites into orbit during 2017.…

Read More


2017 – Galileo

Europe’s expansion of its Galileo PNT constellation slowed a little during 2017, when nine clocks aboard some of the satellites failed.[efn_note]Peter Gutierrez. “ESA Puts Brave Face on Galileo Clock Failures.”…

Read More


2017 – BeiDou

In 2017, China continued expanding its BeiDou constellation, the nation’s space-based PNT system. Launching two BeiDou satellites, the nation’s share increased to 26% of all PNT satellites. The 25 Chinese…

Read More