Infrastructure

Satellites


Rivals Launch Military Satellites Amid U.S.-led Space Defense Drills

A flurry of military and intelligence satellite launches by rival powers this month came as the United States and two dozen partner nations wrapped up the largest global space defense wargame in history.

Russia launched what some leaders have described as a spy satellite for Iran and its own on-orbit snooping satellite Cosmos-2558, which is circling Earth in an orbit conspicuously close to a recently launched U.S. National Reconnaissance Office satellite, a Netherlands researcher confirmed.

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2018 – Satellites

As of March 6, 2019, information was available about 38 nations that deployed and operated 465 spacecraft during 2018. The number of nations operating spacecraft grew 10% from . . .

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2018 – Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure

Space infrastructure, like its terrestrial counterpart, is an invisible backbone for services used by people all over the world. Like terrestrial infrastructure, space infrastructure is increasingly relied upon for convenience, services, and . . .

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2016 – Satellite Orbits – Snapshot

As in previous years, the most used orbit type is low Earth orbit (LEO). In 2016, 80% of the 219 spacecraft launched or deployed around the Earth were inserted into LEO. The effective range of this type of . . .

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2016 – Satellite Overview – Snapshot

Traditional satellite missions, such as Earth observation, communications, and positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), continued dominating the global space industry, but other missions are coming forward. Air traffic control and ship traffic monitoring satellites are increasing as more governments and organizations recognize the usefulness of these missions. Radio occultation using…

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Ground Networks

Ground stations serve as the links between Earth and space, tying together terrestrial and space infrastructure. They track satellites and spacecraft, as well as communicate with and control satellites, probes, crewed space vessels, and space stations.

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