Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Satellites
Indian PNT Satellites (NavIC)
India launched one Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) satellite to complete its Navigation with Indian Constellation…
India completed the first part of a two-phase plan during 2016, fielding a constellation of seven Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) PNT satellites. The constellation was . . .
During 2016, India completed the first phase of a two-phase plan for its positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) satellite system, the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS). Upon the launch of the final IRNSS satellite, the Indian government renamed IRNSS the Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). The country launched…
India’s share of the world’s operational PNT satellites hovered around 4% for 2014 and 2015. Launching one Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) satellite in 2015, the country continued to make progress toward its goal of operating seven regionally focused PNT satellites by 2016. All of the IRNSS constellation’s satellites will orbit the Earth in geosynchronous orbit, with four of the seven moving about in inclined orbits while the remaining three stay in a steady geostationary path.
India continued with plans for its regional PNT constellation, the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS), launching ## more IRNSS satellites in 2014. With a total of ## PNT satellites in geosynchronous orbit, India is nearly halfway toward completing its ##-satellite IRNSS constellation. Even with ## IRNSS satellites, the Indians will continue to rely on GPS for their GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system, which became operational in 2014.
Several other nations are developing or expanding their PNT or augmentation systems. The first satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) was launched in 2013. When complete, the network will include ## satellites to enhance PNT coverage over South Asia. ## of the ## will be in heavily inclined, non-equatorial GEO, while ## will be in traditional GEO. India also has a GPS augmentation system called GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN), designed to improve air navigation in India.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) will include ## satellites providing coverage primarily for South Asia. Like the Japanese system, ## of the ## will be in non-equatorial GEO, while ## will be in traditional GEO. The first satellite is scheduled to be launched in early 2013. India also has a GPS augmentation system called GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN, which is Hindi for “sky”), designed to improve air navigation in India. In September 2012, the second of three GAGAN payloads was put in orbit aboard the GSAT-10 satellite.
The Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System is under development by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The introduction of these competing systems, with newer spacecraft and stronger signals, should improve global coverage, accuracy, and reliability.
In 2006, India announced the Indian Regional Navigation System (IRNSS), joining the ranks of countries with plans for indigenous navigation systems. IRNSS is to be a ##-satellite geostationary and geosynchronous system developed over the next six to seven years.